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Table 5 Characteristics of the study participants and myopia prevalence (Univariate)

From: Refractive errors and risk factors for myopia in infants aged 1–18 months in Tianjin, China

Parameters Total,n(%) Myopia,n(%) No Myopia,n(%) P
Total 583 (100%) 30 (5.1%) 553 (94.9%)  
Gender     0.022
 Boys 312 (52.2%) 10 (3.2%) 302 (96.8%)  
 Girls 271 (47.8%) 20 (7.4%) 251 (92.6%)  
GA     0.023
 ≥37weeks 419 (71.8%) 27 (6.4%) 392 (93.6%)  
 <37weeks 164 (28.2%) 3 (1.8%) 161 (98.2%)  
BW     0.808
 ≥2500g 456 (78.2%) 24 (5.3%) 432 (94.7%)  
 <2500g 127 (21.8%) 6 (4.7%) 121 (95.3%)  
Type of delivery     0.912
 Normal vaginal birth 247 (42.3%) 13 (5.3%) 234 (94.7%)  
 Cesarean birth 336 (57.7%) 17 (5.1%) 319 (94.9%)  
Twins     0.114
 Yes 74 (12.7%) 1 (1.4%) 73 (98.6%)  
 No 509 (87.3%) 29 (5.7%) 480 (94.3%)  
Birth Season     0.038
 Spring 101 (17.3%) 6 (5.9%) 95 (94.1%)  
 Summer 135 (23.1%) 1 (7.1%) 134 (99.3%)  
 Autumn 155 (16.7%) 8 (5.2%) 147 (94.8%)  
 Winter 192 (32.9%) 15 (7.8%) 177 (92.2%)  
Ambient Nighttime Light Exposure     0.719
 Yes 232 (39.7%) 11 (4.7%) 221 (95.3%)  
 No 351 (60.3%) 19 (5.4%) 332 (94.6%)  
Infant feeding     0.859
 Breastfeeding 237 (40.6%) 13 (5.5%) 224 (94.5%)  
 Breastfeeding mixed Formula milk 226 (38.9%) 12 (5.3%) 214 (94.7%)  
 Formula milk 120 (20.5%) 5 (4.2%) 115 (95.8%)  
Smoking during pregnancy: any parents     0.015
 Yes 192 (32.9%) 16 (8.3%) 176 (91.7%)  
 No 391 (67.1%) 14 (3.6%) 377 (96.4%)  
Maternal age at birth     0.537
 <25y 12 (2.1%) 0 (0%) 12 (100.0%)  
 25-35y 444 (76.1) 25 (5.6%) 419 (94.4%)  
 >35y 127 (21.8%) 5 (3.9%) 122 (96.1%)  
Parental high myopia     <0.001
 Yes 114 (19.6%) 16 (14.0%) 98 (86.0%)  
 No 469 (80.4%) 14 (3.0%) 455 (97.0%)  
Number of myopic Parents     0.257
 None 103 (17.6%) 4 (3.9%) 99 (96.1%)  
 One 246 (42.1%) 17 (6.9%) 229 (93.1%)  
 Two 234 (40.3%) 9 (3.8%) 225 (96.2%)