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Table 4 Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis for predictors of visual impairment among people living with T2DM at Dessie town Hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia, 2020 (n = 322)

From: Visual impairment and its predictors among people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dessie town hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia: institution-based cross-sectional study

Variables Categories VI COR (95% CI) AOR(95% CI)
No Yes
Sex Male 119 56 1 1
Female 82 65 1.68 (1.06, 2.65) 1.29(0.56, 2.96)
Marital status Unmarried 27 4 1  
Married 174 117 4.54(1.54, 13.31) 1.25(0.30, 5.11)
Education Unable to read and write 32 41 1 1
Primary 52 32 0.48 (0.25, 0.90) 0.92 (0.33 2.50)
Secondary 51 28 0.43 (0.22, 0.82) 1.11 (0.37, 3.29)
Diploma and above 66 20 0.23 (0.12, 0.46) 0.67 (0.20, 2.23)
Occupation Government worker 52 18 1 1
House wife 26 34 3.77 (1.80, 7.92) 1.54 (0.59, 4.00)
Other 19 21 3.19 (1.40, 7.25) 1.33(0.42, 4.17)
Residence Urban 166 83 1  
Rural 35 38 2.17(1.27, 3.68) 1.85(0.71, 4.80)
Regular-exercise Good 94 29 1  
Poor 107 92 2.78(1.68, 4.59) 2.91(1.47, 5.76)**
Duration of diabetes ≤5 years 154 43 1  
> 5–24 years 47 78 28.59(3.68, 221.75) 2.42(1.24, 4.73)**
Treatment OHA without insulin 140 61 1  
Both of OHA and insulin 34 39 2.63(1.52, 4.56) 1.45(0.71, 2.97)
Insulin only 2 20 22.95(5.20, 101.25) 14.05(2.72, 72.35)**
Hypertension Yes 51 47 1.86(1.15, 3.03) 1.26(0.65, 2.44)
No 150 74 1  
Glycemic Control (FPG) < 152 (good) 94 41 1  
≥152 (poor) 107 80 1.71(1.07, 2.73) 2.17(1.13, 4.14)*
  1. OHA oral hypoglycemic agent, *significant at p < 0.05, **significant at p < 0.01, ***significant at p < 0.001, 1 = indicator/reference category, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit (p = 0.781), no multicollinearity (VIF < 10)