- Case report
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Bilateral macular hole formation secondary to sclopetaria caused by shockwaves transmitted by a posterior vector: case report
- Nancy Kunjukunju1Email author,
- Alicia Navarro†2,
- Scott Oliver†3,
- Jeff Olson†3,
- Chirag Patel†3,
- Gerardo Garcia†2,
- Naresh Mandava†3 and
- Hugo Quiroz-Mercado†2, 3
© Kunjukunju et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 22 October 2009
Accepted: 19 March 2010
Published: 19 March 2010
Sclopetaria is a rare ophthalmic finding in trauma
This is a report of a patient who developed macular holes from sclopetaria induced by indirect trauma. A 22-year-old male, suffered a gunshot wound that passed behind his eyes, resulting in bilateral macular hole formation
To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which trauma posterior to the globes caused bilateral macular hole formation
The mechanism underlying idiopathic macular hole formation has been well elucidated by optical coherence tomography (OCT), particularly with regard to the relationship between the posterior vitreous cortex and the macular area [1, 2]. Tangential and anterior-posterior forces at the fovea have been implicated in idiopathic macular hole formation . There is no longer a great deal of speculation or controversy regarding perifoveal vitreous traction as a mechanism for idiopathic macular hole formation. In traumatic macular holes however, such is not the case. One commonly held theory is that blunt trauma directly alters the anterior-posterior diameter of the globe in such a fashion as to induce stress on the retina at significant areas of vitreous attachment . Most theories regarding traumatic macular holes involve direct blunt contact with the globe. We present an interesting case of a patient who sustained bilateral macular hole formation indirectly, with no evidence of direct trauma to the globe.
There are a number of theories regarding the underlying cause of traumatic macular hole formation. It has been suggested that the direct force of the impact transmitted to the macula causes foveal rupture . Cyst formation and rupture of the cyst has also been implicated . Although sudden vitreous separation has also been thought to be the cause of traumatic macular hole formation, other cases have documented an attached posterior vitreous at the time of vitrectomy . Johnson et al. has hypothesized that there is a "trampoline-like movement of the posterior pole," that causes tractional forces on the retina when there is sudden compression of the globe in blunt trauma . Immediate visual loss is believed to be secondary to foveal detachment, while delayed visual loss in other patients may be due to accumulative cystic changes and photoreceptor loss [5, 7]. The aforementioned theories characterize macular hole formation secondary to trauma directly affecting the globe.
Our patient's eyes were indirectly affected by trauma and the previously noted theories are not applicable. Rather it is our hypothesis that the etiology of our patient's macular holes may have been caused by a mechanism similar to that of chorioretinal ruptures caused by nonpenetrating injury. Sclopetaria or chorioretinal rupture is a rare manifestation of nonpenetrating ocular trauma. Essentially, a high-velocity object triggers a force or "shock-wave" that deforms the globe and is transmitted to the posterior vitreous, retina, choroid and sclera . The shock wave causes simultaneous damage to the retina and choroid; these tissues are disrupted revealing bare sclera. The mechanical disruption and tissue retraction causes a full-thickness chorioretinal defect and visual loss. It has been postulated that shock waves transmitted in an anterior-posterior direction, as in the case of a Nd:Yag laser peripheral iridotomy, may induce a macular hole. In this report they hypothesize that the laser generated shock waves, due to plasma formation and photo-disruption, eventually led to vitreous traction and macular hole formation . Theories have also been postulated regarding an acoustic shock wave as a possible mechanism of retinal damage .
Sclopeteria is caused by shock waves. Sclopetaria and macular hole formation is a rare association following trauma ; indeed our case represents an unusual presentation of bilateral traumatic macular hole formation resulting from shock waves transmitted from behind the globe in a posterior-anterior direction. Our patient suffered a dehiscence of retinal tissue at the fovea as a result of these shockwaves, as in sclopetaria, which induced bilateral macular hole formation.
Although there are cases in which traumatic macular holes may close spontaneously  and others cases in which surgery has been successfully performed to close them , our patient's visual outcome was poor. As in the case of laser injury  in which there can be permanent damage to the photoreceptor cells, our patient's photoreceptors may have been affected. Spontaneous resolution of traumatic holes has been observed in cases in which there is vitreous adhesion at the edges of the hole and is believed to be secondary to a complete posterior vitreous detachment . Our patient was observed for a period of time, as he was young and there was vitreous adhesion . However, he eventually underwent surgery. Although his macular hole initially closed, it opened later. The mechanism for the reopening is unclear, particularly as there seemed to be no other underlying reason for failure of the hole to close: there was no evidence of further traction nor did the patient undergo cataract surgery [16, 17]. It is possible that a stable glial plug failed to form . In any case, our patient opted not to have further surgery.
Consent: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
- Puliafito R, Hee MR, Lin CP, Reichel E, Schuman JS, Duker JS, Izatt JA, Swanson EA, Fujimoto JG: Imaging of macular diseases with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ophthalmology. 1995, 102: 217-29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, Duker JS, Reichel E, Schuman JS, Swanson EA, Fujimoto JG: Optical coherence tomography of macular holes. Ophthalmology. 1995, 102: 748-56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gaudric A, Hauchine B, Massin P, Paques M, Blain P, Erginay A: Macular hole formation: new data provided by optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999, 117: 744-51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delori F, Pomerantezeff O, Cox MS: Deformation of the globe under high-speed impact; its relation to contusion injuries. Invest Ophthalmol. 1969, 8: 290-301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yanagiya N, Akiba J, Takahashi M, Shimizu A, Kakehashi A, Kado M, Hikichi T, Yoshida A: Clinical characteristics of traumatic macular holes. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1996, 40: 544-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnson RN, McDonald R, Lewis H, Grand MG, Murray TG, Mieler WF, Johnson MW, Boldt HC, Olsen KR, Tornambe PE, Folk JC: Traumatic Macular Hole: Observations, Pathogenesis and Results of Vitrectomy Surgery. Ophthalmology. 2001, 108: 853-857. 10.1016/S0161-6420(00)00650-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mizusawa Y, Ichibe M, Yoshizawa T, Ando N: Clinical evaluation of traumatic macular hole. Jpn Rev clin Ophthalmol. 1996, 90: 790-2.Google Scholar
- Martin DF, Awh CC, McCuen BW, Jaffe GJ, Slott JH, Machemer R: Treatment and pathogenesis of traumatic chorioretinal rupture (sclopetaria). Am J Ophthalmol. 1994, 117: 190-200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acharya N, Munshi V, Sharma T: Bilateral Macular Holes Immediately Following Nd:Yag Laser Peripheral Iridotomy. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2008, 26: 615-616. 10.1089/pho.2008.2243.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Till SJ, Till J, Milsom PK, Rowlands G: A new model for laser induced thermal damage in the retina. Bull Math Biol. 2003, 65: 731-746. 10.1016/S0092-8240(03)00028-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grosso A, Panico C: Surgical management of Sclopetaria associated with macular hole in a young patient: long term results. Eye. 2009, 23: 1875-6. 10.1038/eye.2008.357.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada H, Sakai A, Yamada E, Nishimura T, Matsumura M: Spontaneous closure of Traumatic Macular Hole. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002, 134: 340-7. 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01535-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin LT, Liang CM, Chiang SY, Yang HM, Chang CJ: Traumatic macular hole secondary to a q-switch alexandrite laser. Retina. 2005, 25: 662-6. 10.1097/00006982-200507000-00020.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smiddy WE: The current status of macular hole surgery. Bull Soc Belge Ophthalmol. 1996, 262: 31-42.Google Scholar
- Oswaldo FMB, Oswaldo MB: Management of traumatic macular holes case report. Arq Bras Ofthalmol. 2008, 71: 581-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paques M, Massin P, Blain P, Duquesnoy AS, Gaudric A: Long term incidence of reopening of macular holes. Ophthalmology. 2000, 107: 760-765. 10.1016/S0161-6420(99)00182-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Christmas NJ, Smiddy WE, Flynn Hw: Reopening of macular holes after initial successful repair. Ophthalmology. 1998, 105: 1835-8. 10.1016/S0161-6420(98)91025-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Funata M, Wendel RT, de la Cruz Z, Green WR: Clinicopathologic study of bilateral macular holes treated with pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade. Retina. 1992, 12: 289-298. 10.1097/00006982-199212040-00001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2415/10/6/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.