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Akreos Adapt AO Intraocular lens opacification after vitrectomy in a diabetic patient: a case report and review of the literature
© Cao et al. 2016
Received: 15 January 2016
Accepted: 4 June 2016
Published: 8 June 2016
Postoperative optic opacification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) is an uncommon complication leading to IOL explantation. In the past decade, several studies reported that the granular deposits responsible for the opacification were probably calcium and phosphate salts; however, the exact mechanism causing calcification of IOLs is unknown. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and laboratory findings of a case of late postoperative opacification of an aspheric hydrophilic acrylic IOL (Akreos Adapt AO) after vitrectomy.
A 60-year-old woman diagnosed with cataract and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL (Akreos Adapt AO, Bausch & Lomb) implantation in both eyes. Seven months later, the woman came back with a complaint of blurry vision in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye veiling the retinal detail. A 23-gauge vitrectomy with endolaser treatment was performed in the left eye. Ten months after the vitrectomy, the patient complained of decreased visual acuity in the left eye again. On slit-lamp examination, we observed a well circumscribed centrally and paracentrally located opacification within the pupillary area localized to the anterior surface of the IOL. The IOL was explanted from the left eye together with the capsular bag, and an iris-claw lens (Artisan Aphakia OPHTEC) was implanted. The explanted IOL was examined under pathological evaluation (alizarin red method).
IOL opacification is a rare event. We described a case of postoperative opacification of the Akreos Adapt AO IOL after vitrectomy in a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and found the deposits on the anterior surface of the IOL consisted of calcium aggregates. Given the higher frequency of postoperative opacification observed in diabetic patients, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs should be used with caution in patients with diabetes.
Postoperative optic opacification of hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) is an uncommon complication leading to IOL explantation. In the past decade, several studies reported that the granular deposits responsible for the opacification were probably calcium and phosphate salts [1–4]; however, the exact mechanism causing calcification of IOLs is unknown. The aim of this study is to describe clinical and laboratory findings of a case of late postoperative opacification of an aspheric hydrophilic acrylic IOL (Akreos Adapt AO) after vitrectomy.
In February 2014, a 60-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed with cataract and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in both eyes. On examination she had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 0.02 in the right eye and 0.01 in the left eye. She underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL (Akreos Adapt AO, Bausch & Lomb) implantation in both eyes. Two weeks after cataract surgery the BCVA in the left eye improved to 0.4. Then she had fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and received panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes.
In September 2014, the woman came back with complaint of blurry vision in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye veiling the retinal detail. We performed a 23-gauge vitrectomy with endolaser treatment in the left eye.
The explanted IOL was sent to research center of Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences. The unstained IOL was evaluated and photographed under a light microscope (Olympus Optical Co.,Ltd.). Then the IOL was rinsed in distilled water, immersed in 1.0 % alizarin red solution (a special stain for calcium) for 10 min, rinsed again in distilled water, and reexamined under the light microscope.
To date, postoperative opacification of modern hydrophilic acrylic IOLs has been reported in many cases. The five major hydrophilic acrylic IOLs include Hydroview (Bausch & Lomb), the SC60B-OUV (Medical Developmental Research, Inc.), ACRL-60 (Ophthalmed Inc.), MemoryLens (Ciba Vision) and AquaSense (Ophthalmic Innovations International, Inc.) [1–5]. Histopathological analysis and molecular surface analysis have been performed on the explanted opacified IOLs, and calcium and phosphate precipitations were found on the surface/subsurface and/or within the IOLs.
Six cases of opacifiaction of Akreos Adapt AO IOL reported so far
Associated ocular conditions
Other ocular surgeries/procedures
Shiu Ting Mak et al.
a history of anterior uveitis
ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and gout
Liliana Werner et al.
Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK)
Liliana Werner et al.
repeated DSAEK with complete gas fill
Mattro Forlini et al.
diabetes and hypertension
Ex-press device implantation
Chong Eun Lee et al.
Ahmed valve implantation
In the present study, the deposits on the explanted IOL stained positive with alizarin red (a special stain for calcium). The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes for more than five years. She received phacoemulsification and was implanted with Akreos adapt AO IOLs in both eyes; however, only the left eye which presented with vitreous hemorrhage and received vitrectomy developed calcification of the IOL. We presume that preexisting diabetic retinopathy, inflammatory reaction after vitrectomy or a breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) may be responsible for the opacification.
We noticed a higher rate of diabetes in patients with opacification of Akreos Adapt AO IOLs (four out of six patients having concomitant diabetes). Previous studies also supported that IOL opacification was most common in patients with systemic diseases such as diabetes [9, 10]. First of all, in cases of diabetic retinopathy (DR), where many pathological conditions such as ischemia/hypoxia, shear stress and inflammation play a role, intravitreal levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are significantly increased as compared with those in non-diabetic controls . Therefore, increased calcium influx is evoked by intravitreal ATP. Secondly, in the eyes of DR a higher concentration of intravitreal protein is identified. This is involved in the production of angiotensin I and elevates the concentration of serum calcium. A combination of the two hypotheses may lead to the higher incidence of IOL calcification in diabetic patients. However, we are unable to establish a correlation between these complications and diabetes. Further study is warranted to continue monitoring cases of hydrophilic acrylic IOL calcification to verify the percentage of cases associated with diabetes or DR.
IOL opacification is a rare event. We described a case of postoperative opacification of Akreos Adapt AO IOL after vitrectomy in a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and found the deposits on the anterior surface of the IOL consisted of calcium aggregates. Given the higher frequency of postoperative opacification observed in diabetic patients, hydrophilic acrylic IOLs should be used with caution in patients with diabetes.
ATP, Adenosine triphosphate; BCVA, Best corrected visual acuity; DR, Diabetic retinopathy; DSAEK, Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty; FFA, fundus fluorescein angiography; IOL, Intraocular lens
The authors thank the patient and her daughter who generously agreed to participate in this medical report.
National Natural Science Foundation of China (Number: 81500737)
DC drafted the manuscript, participated in the histopathologic procedures, collected the data, and reviewed the literature. HZ and CY were involved in the design of the study, interpretation of the data, drafting of the manuscript. LZ was the retinal specialist who performed the vitrectomy and IOL exchange for this patient. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the editor of this journal.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study has been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Guangdong General Hospital (registration number: gdrec2015160A).
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