This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Steatocystoma simplex of the lacrimal caruncle: a case report
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 6 November 2015
Accepted: 11 October 2016
Published: 19 October 2016
This is the third reported case of a steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle.
A 60-year-old male presented with a history of a slowly progressing mass in the right lacrimal caruncle since several years before his initial visit. At the first examination, a yellowish, relatively smooth surface mass was observed in the right lacrimal caruncle. The caruncular mass was completely removed under local anesthesia. The pathological findings of this mass were consistent with a steatocystoma. At the 6-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or development of the steatocystoma or any other masses.
Although steatocystoma simplex rarely occurs in the lacrimal caruncle, it needs to be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients with a mass lesion in the caruncle.
Steatocystoma is a benign tumor thought to be a circumscribed malformation arising from the pilosebaceous duct junction . Steatocystoma simplex is a noninheritable solitary counterpart of a steatocystoma multiplex [1–6]. Steatocystoma simplex commonly occurs in the skin of the forehead, nose, scalp, neck, axillae, chest, upper limbs, back, or legs [2–6]. In contrast, steatocystoma simplex in the periocular region is extremely rare [4, 5], with only two reported cases of a lacrimal caruncular lesion [2, 3].
In this case report, we present a case of a steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle.
This study was approved by the ethics committee of Aichi Medical University Hospital (No. 2015-H011) and adhered to the tenets of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.
A 60-year-old male presented with a history of a slowly progressing mass in the right lacrimal caruncle since several years before his initial visit. There was no family history of any similar masses. The patient had no history of removal of any similar masses.
All three lesions were completely removed under local anesthesia without rupture. The cysts were not opened prior to histological processing. The pathological examination of the caruncular mass revealed a cyst lined by squamous epithelium (Fig. 1b). The cyst wall was thin and contained sebaceous glands (Fig. 1b and c) [5, 6]. Invaginations resembling hair follicles extended from the cyst wall into the surrounding stroma . The epithelial layer was partially undulated (Fig. 1c) [5, 6]. Hairs were not found in the cyst lumen . The findings were consistent with a steatocystoma. The pathological diagnoses of the other masses in the right upper and left lower eyelid margins were a hybrid epidermoid and apocrine cyst, and a hidrocystoma, respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or development of the steatocystoma or any other masses.
We describe a case of a steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle. Although 962 cases of lacrimal caruncular tumors have been previously reviewed in eight reports, none of them included steatocystomas [8–15]. Only two single case reports of a steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle have been reported [2, 3].
The steatocystoma simplex is a cutaneous tumor thought to be a circumscribed malformation arising from the pilosebaceous duct junction . As the lacrimal caruncle contains elements of both conjunctiva and skin , steatocystomas may have developed from the lacrimal caruncle, in a similar manner as other skin regions.
Differential diagnoses of the steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle vary. An oncocytoma is a slowly progressing, cystic mass; however, it usually exhibits a reddish-blue tan color . Although sebaceous gland hyperplasia, sebaceous gland adenoma, and lipogranuloma appear as yellow nodules, they present with different pathological findings . Dermoid cysts show similar clinical and pathological findings to steatocystomas, although the dermoid cysts do not show an undulation in the epithelial layer without containing hairs in the lumen . Cutaneous keratocysts also have a histopathological resemblance to steatocystoma by a festooned lining continuous with a thick stratified squamous wall that lacks a granular layer; however, sebaceous glands and lobules are typically lacking in the cutaneous cysts [5, 6].
In conclusion, we present a rare case of a steatocystoma simplex in the lacrimal caruncle. Steatocystoma simplex therefore needs to be considered as a possible diagnosis for patients with a mass lesion in the caruncle.
Availability of data and materials
The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor of this journal.
All authors qualified for authorship based on contributions to the conception and design (YT and HK), acquisition of the data (YT and ET), and analysis and interpretation of the data (YI, YT, ET, YK, and HK). All authors contributed to writing the manuscript, revising it critically for important intellectual content, and gave final approval of the version to be submitted for publication.
The authors declare they have no competing interests to declare.
Consent for publication
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was approved by the ethics committee of Aichi Medical University Hospital (No. 2015-H011) and adhered to the tenets of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Procianoy F, Golbert MB, Golbspan L, Duro KM, Bocaccio FJL. Steatocystoma simplex of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:147–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bowyer J, Sullivan T. Steatocystoma of the caruncle. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:240–1.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim NJ, Moon KC, Khwarg SI. Steatocystoma of the caruncle. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:83–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tirakunwichcha S, Vaivanijkul J. Steatocystoma simplex of the eyelid. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:49–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kazakov DV, Michal M, Kacerovska D, McKee PH. Steatocystoma. In: Kazakov DV, Michal M, Kacerovska D, McKee PH, editors. Cutaneous Adnexal Tumors. Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2012;368–72.Google Scholar
- Jenkins JR, Morgan MB. Dermal cysts: a dermatopathological perspective and histological reappraisal. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:815–29.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirkham N. Tumors and cysts of the epidermis. In: Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Johnson BL Jr., Murphy GF, Xu X, editors. Lever’s Histopathology of the Skin. Philadelphia; Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009;791–849.Google Scholar
- Evans WH. Tumors of the lacrimal caruncle. A study of 200 collected cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;24:83–106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luthra CL, Doxanas MT, Green WR. Lesions of the caruncle: A clinicopathologic study. Surv Ophthalmol. 1978;23:183–95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shields CL, Shields JA, White D, Augsburger JJ. Types and frequency of lesions of the caruncle. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;102:771–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson RP. Tumours and cysts of the lacrimal caruncle. Trans Ophthalmol Soc NZ. 1959;11:23–32.Google Scholar
- Santos A, Gómez-Leal A. Lesions of the lacrimal caruncle: Clinicopathological features. Ophthalmology. 1994;101:943–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Serra GM. Tumori della caruncola lacrimale: Studio clinic ed anatomo patologico-casistica. Boll Ocul. 1928;7:783–802.Google Scholar
- Kaeser PF, Uffer S, Zografos L, Hamédani M. Tumors of the caruncle: a clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:448–55.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levy J, Ilsar M, Deckel Y, Maly A, Pe’er J. Lesions of the caruncle: a description of 42 cases and a review of the literature. Eye. 2009;23:1004–18.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar